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ORIGINAL ARTICLE Table of Contents   
Year : 2010  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 41-43
Preliminary phytochemical and antiulcer studies of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. root extracts


1 School of Pharmacy, Masterskill University College of Health Sciences, Batu 9, Cheras 43200, Selangor, Malaysia
2 Centre for Marine Science and Technology, M.S. University, Rajakkamangalam, Kanyakumari District, Tamilnadu, India

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Date of Submission09-Apr-2009
Date of Acceptance06-Oct-2009
Date of Web Publication1-Apr-2010
 

   Abstract 

The antiulcer activity of various extracts of Hibiscus rosa sinensis roots was evaluated in pyloric ligation induced gastric ulcer in albino rats. The root extracts were prepared by cold maceration process with petroleum ether, alcohol and water separately. The preliminary phytochemical screening of H. rosa sinensis revealed the presence of sterols, glycosides, proteins, mucilage and flavonoids. Oral administration of aqueous and alcohol extracts (250 and 500 mg/kg) of H. rosa sinensis roots were evaluated for antiulcer activity and compared with the standard drug, lansoperazole (8 mg/kg). From the results, it can be concluded that the aqueous extract of H. rosa sinensis roots (500 mg/kg) showed highly significant (P<0.001) dose-dependent antiulcer activity. These results lend scientific support for the plant as folk medicine.

Keywords: Hibiscus rosa sinensis, antiulcer activity, pyloric ligation, maceration

How to cite this article:
Anita Gnana Kumari A V, Palavesam A, Anbu Jeba Sunilson J, Anandarajagopal K, Vignesh M, Parkavi J. Preliminary phytochemical and antiulcer studies of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. root extracts. Int J Green Pharm 2010;4:41-3

How to cite this URL:
Anita Gnana Kumari A V, Palavesam A, Anbu Jeba Sunilson J, Anandarajagopal K, Vignesh M, Parkavi J. Preliminary phytochemical and antiulcer studies of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. root extracts. Int J Green Pharm [serial online] 2010 [cited 2014 Oct 25];4:41-3. Available from: http://www.greenpharmacy.info/text.asp?2010/4/1/41/62166



   Introduction Top


Hibiscus rosa sinensis L. (Malvaceae) is an annual or perennial herbaceous bush and has several forms with varying colors of flowers. It is native to China and grown widely as an ornamental plant throughout India. The flowers are considered emollient, and an infusion of the petals is used as a demulcent and refrigerant drink in fevers; [1] it's decotion is given in bronchial catarrh [2] in India. Previous studies show that the plant possesses anti-complimentary, anti-diarrhetic and anti-phologistic [3] activities. The leaves and flowers have been found to be effective in the treatment of heart disorders; [4] used as an anti-spermatogenic and androgenic, [5] anti-tumor, [6] anticonvulsant, [7] anti-diabetic [8] and anti-ulcer [9] activities and also as a hair growth promoter. [10] The root of Hibiscus rosa sinensis is traditionally used for the treatment of ulcer among the Kani tribes in Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India. No reports are available on the antiulcer activity of H. rosa sinensis roots. Hence, the present study focuses on the scientific investigation of antiulcer activity of H. rosa sinensis roots.


   Materials and Methods Top


Plant Material

The roots of H. rosa sinensis were collected from Kallukoottam, Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India, in the month of July, 2003. The plant was authenticated by Dr. P. Jayaraman, M.Sc., Ph.D., Director, Plant Anatomy Research Center, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. A voucher specimen of the collected plant was deposited in the Herbarium of S. B. College of Pharmacy, Sivakasi, Tamil Nadu, India (voucher specimen No: SBCPVSM/6/H3). These were dried as quickly as possible in a good air draft or in shade and stored in airtight glass jars until use.

Preparation of Extract

The dried, powdered roots of H. rosa sinensis (1000 g) were extracted by cold maceration [11],[12] method with petroleum ether, alcohol (70%) and water separately for six days. The extracts were concentrated under vacuum on rotary evaporator (Buchi, USA) and then dried in lyophilizer (Labconco, USA) under reduced pressure [13] and obtained 13.2, 28.3 and 43.29 g of extracts respectively.

Phytochemical Investigation

The preliminary phytochemical studies [14] were conducted for the above extracts of H. rosa sinensis roots to find out the presence of various phytoconstituents. The results of preliminary phytochemical investigation are shown in [Table 1]. The extracts were made as a 2 % suspension with CMC for further studies.

Animals

Healthy adult albino rats (100-150 g) of either sex were selected from the animal house of S.B. College of Pharmacy, Sivakasi,Tamil Nadu. They were kept in the departmental animal house under the conditions of light (14 h light/10 h dark) at 27±2°C and relative humidity 44-56%, for one week before and during the experiments. They were fed with pellet diet (Hindustan Ltd., Bangalore, India) and water was allowed to have ad libitum. All animals were handled according to the guidelines for investigations of experimental pain in conscious animals. [15] The experimental protocol was approved by the Institutional Animal Ethical Committee (CPCSEA and IAEC No. SBCP/ F8 (f)/325(a)).

Antiulcer Activity

All the extracts of H. rosa sinensis roots were screened for antiulcer activity by pyloric ligation method [16],[17] in rats. The animals were divided into eight groups (n=6) and made to fast for 18 hours. Group I served as control and received vehicle. Group II-VII received petroleum ether, alcohol and aqueous extract (250 and 500 mg/kg/p.o.) respectively. Group VIII received the standard drug, lansoperazole (8 mg/kg/p.o.). [18] Four hours after the pyloric ligation, the animals were sacrificed by decapitation. Then the stomach was cut open along the greater curvature and the inner mucosal membrane was examined for ulcer lesions, ulcer score [19] and the parameters like gastric volume, pH, free acidity and total acidity were determined and compared with control.

Statistical Analysis

All the data are expressed as mean±SEM. The values obtained for the above parameters in extracts were compared with control group using one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's test. [20] The values of P<0.01 and P<0.001 were considered to indicate a significant difference between the groups.


   Results and Discussion Top


In the present study, the preliminary phytochemical investigation on extracts revealed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, sterols, saponins, proteins, triterpenoids, mucilages, flavanoids, tannins and phenolic compounds, which was reported [Table 1]. The results of oral administration of petroleum ether, alcohol and aqueous extracts of H. rosa sinensis roots at a dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w. on different biochemical parameters in rats were represented [Table 2]. The different extracts used for this study showed the tendency to reduce the parameters like volume of acid, free acidity, total acidity and ulcer score. The aqueous extract showed highly significant (P<0.001) reduction where as the alcohol extract showed significant (P<0.01) reduction in all the parameters when compared with control. Petroleum ether extract was devoid of activity.

Previous studies on different plants reporting anti ulcerogenic activity were due to the presence of mucilage, [21] saponins, [22] tannins [23],[24] and flavanoids. [25] The antiulcer activity of H. rosa sinensis may be due to the presence of phytoconstituents like mucilage, saponins, tannins and flavanoids present in this extracts.


   Conclusion Top


The study concludes that the aqueous and alcohol extracts of H. rosa sinensis roots possessed significant antiulcer activity in pylorus ligated rats at the dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg/p.o, which was well compared with lansoperazole (8 mg/kg/p.o.). Thus it has been scientifically proven that these extracts possess enough potential as an anti ulcerogenic agent.


   Acknowledgment Top


The authors thank Mr. S. Sriram Ashok, Correspondent, S.B. College of Pharmacy, Sivakasi, Tamilnadu, India, for help during the course of study; Dato' Edmund Santhara, CEO and Dato' Dr. Proom Promwichit, Vice-Chancellor for Research, Masterskill University College of Health Sciences, Malaysia, for encouragement and support.

 
   References Top

1.Chatterjee A, Pakrashi SC. The Treatise of Indian medicinal plants. 1992. p. 180.  Back to cited text no. 1      
2.Chopra RN, Chopra IC, Varma BS. Supplementary to glossary of Indian medicinal plants. New Delhi: India; 1969. p. 39.  Back to cited text no. 2      
3.Shimizu N, Tomoda M, Suzuki I, Takada K. Plant mucilages XLIII. A representative mucilage with biological activity from the leaves of Hibiscus rosa sinensis. Biol Pharm Bull 1993;16:735-9.  Back to cited text no. 3      
4.Sharma UD. Cure of heart diseases with ayurvedic drugs. Sacitra Ayurveda 1994;47:95-6.  Back to cited text no. 4      
5.Reddy CM, Murthy DR, Patil SB. Antispermatogenic and androgenic activities of various extracts of Hibiscus rosa sinensis in albino mice. Indian J Exp Biol 1997;35:1170-4.  Back to cited text no. 5      
6.Serrame E, Lim SCY. Antitumour promoting activity of decoctions and expressed juices from Philippine medicinal plants. Philipine J Sci 1995;124:275-81.  Back to cited text no. 6      
7.Kasture VS, Chopde CT, Deshmukh VK. Anticonvulsive activity of Albizzia lebbeck, Hibiscus rosa sinensis and Butea monosperma in experimental animals. J Ethnopharmacol 2000;71:65-75.  Back to cited text no. 7      
8.Alam MM, Siddiqui MB, Hussain W. Treatment of diabetes through herbal drugs in rural India. Fitoterapia 1990;61:240-2.  Back to cited text no. 8      
9.Ali M, Ansari SH. Hair care and herbal drugs. Ind J Nat Prods 1997;13:3-5.   Back to cited text no. 9      
10.Nadkarni AK. Indian Materia Medica. Bombay: 1954. p. 631.  Back to cited text no. 10      
11.Anbu Jeba Sunilson J, Anita GKAV, Jisha J, Varatharajan R, Jayaraj P, John T. Formulating and screening of herbal wound healing ointment. Adv Pharmacol Toxicol 2008;2:41-5:1-7.  Back to cited text no. 11      
12.Anbu Jeba Sunilson J, Muthu MS, Syam MM, Anita GKAV, John T, Jayaraj P. Antidiabetic activity of Momordica tuberose Roxb. COGN. Tuber extracts. Int J Pharmacol Biol Sci 2008;9:41-5.   Back to cited text no. 12      
13.Suma V, Swamy MM, Vijayalakshmi S, Reddy YSR, Suresh B. Pharmacognostical observations on Sida Rhomboidea Roxb-A report. Ind Drugs 1994;31:421-5.  Back to cited text no. 13      
14.Anshurathi Rao Ch V, Khatoon S, Mehrotra S. Ethno pharmacological evaluation of Peristrophe bicalyculata Nees anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Nat Prod Sci 2003;9:195-9.  Back to cited text no. 14      
15.Zimmermann M. Ethical guidelines for investigations of experimental pain in conscious animals. Pain 1983;16:109-10.  Back to cited text no. 15      
16.Anbu Jeba Sunilson J, Varatharajan R, John T, Jayaraj P, Jisha J, Proomwichit P. Gastroprotective and antioxidant activities of the roots of Hibiscus aculeatus Roxb. Int J Pharmacol 2008;4:1-6.  Back to cited text no. 16      
17.Deshpande SS, Shah GB, Parmar NS. Antiulcer activity of Tephrosia purpurea in rats. Ind J Pharmacol 2003;35:168-72.  Back to cited text no. 17      
18.Devendra S, Tushar P, Samaresh PR, Jyothi TM, Rajendra SV, Prabhu K, et al. Anti-ulcer properties of 70% alcoholic extract of leaves of Albizzia lebbeck. Phcog Mag 2008;4:228-31.   Back to cited text no. 18      
19. Tan PV, Nditafon NG, Yewah MP, Dimo T, Ayafor FJ. Eremomastax speciosa: effects of leaf aqueous extract on ulcer formation and gastric secretion in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 1996;54:139-42.   Back to cited text no. 19      
20.Kulkarnai SK. Handbook of experimental pharmacology. New Delhi; India: Vallabh Prakashan; 1999. p. 172.  Back to cited text no. 20      
21.Jadhav RB, Sonawane DS, Surana SJ. Cytoprotective effects of crude polysaccharide fraction of Abelmoschus esculentus fruits in rats. Phcog Mag 2008;4:130-2.  Back to cited text no. 21      
22.Erdem Y, Yoshihisa T. A saponin with anti-ulcerogenic e€ect from the flowers of Spartium junceum. Phytochemistry 1999;51:903-8.  Back to cited text no. 22      
23.Aguwa CN, Nwanko SO. Preliminary studies on the root extract of Naulea latifolia Smith, for antiulcer properties. Nig J Pharmaceutical Sci. 1988;4:16-23.  Back to cited text no. 23      
24.John TA, Onabanjo AO. Gastroprotective effect of an aqueous extract of Entandro phragmautile bark in experimental ethanol-induced peptic ulceration in mice and rats. J. Ethnopharmacol. 1990;29:87-93.  Back to cited text no. 24      
25.Dahiru D, Onubiyi JA, Umaru HA. Phytochemical screening and antiulcerogenic effect of Moringa oleifera aqueous leaf extract. Afr J Trad Comp Alt Med. 2006;3:70-5.  Back to cited text no. 25      

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Correspondence Address:
J Anbu Jeba Sunilson
School of Pharmacy, Masterskill University College of Health Sciences, G-8, Jalan Kemacahaya 11, Taman Kemacahaya, Batu 9, Cheras 43200, Selangor
Malaysia
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DOI: 10.4103/0973-8258.62166

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    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]

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