Loranthus longiflorus protect central nervous system against oxidative damages of electromagnetic radiation on rat

Hemant Nagar, Dilip Kumar Tiwari, Gaurav Dwivedi, Rishi Kant Tripathi, Jitendra Jena


Background: The interaction of mobile phone radio‑frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF‑EMR) with the brain is a serious
concern of our society. In this study, we aimed to experiment on the anti‑oxidative property of a parasitic plant Loranthus
longiflorus (Loranthaceae) to protect central nervous system against oxidative damages of mobile phone electromagnetic field (EMF). Materials and Methods: Healthy male albino wistar rats were exposed to RF‑EMR by giving 5 min calling/5 min
interval for 1 hour per day for 2 months, keeping a GSM (0.9/1.8 GHz) mobile phone in silent mode (no ring tone) in the cage.
After 15, 30, 45, 60 days exposure, three randomly picked animals from each group were tested with using behavioural model of CNS on rats. Results and Conclusion: Loranthus longiflorus bark extract could be effective in decreasing immobility (P < 0.05) and increased locomotor activity (P < 0.05). This result indicates the protective effect of Loranthus longiflorus bark against EMF induced oxidative damage of central nervous system.
Key words: Depression, electromagnetic radiation, locomotor, Loranthus longiflorus bark, mobile phone

Full Text:



Behari J. Biological responses of mobile phone frequency exposure.

Indian J Exp Biol 2010;48:959‑81.

Erogul O, Oztas E, Yildirim I, Kir T, Aydur E, Komesli G, et al.

Effects of electromagnetic radiation from a cellular phone

on human sperm motility: An in vitro study. Arch Med Res


Balci M, Devrim E, Durak I. Effects of mobile phones on oxidant/

antioxidant balance in cornea and lens of rats. Curr Eye Res


Kalina M, Socher R, Rotem R, Naor Z. Ultrastructural localization

of protein kinase C in human sperm. J Histochem Cytochem


Croft RJ, Chandler JS, Burgess AP, Barry RJ, Williams JD,

Clarke AR. Acute mobile phone operation affects neural functions

in humans. Clin Neurophysiol 2002;113:1623‑32.

Hamblin DL, Wood AW. Effects of mobile phone emissions

on human brain activity and sleep variables. Int J Radiat Biol


Penafiel LM, Litovitz T, Krause D, Desta A, Mullins JM. Role of

modulation on the effect of microwaves on ornithine decarboxylase

activity in L929 cells. Bioelectromagnetics 1997; 18: 132‑41.

Kolomytkin O, Yurinska M, Zharikov S, Kuznetsov V, Zharikova A.

Response of brain receptor systems to microwave energy. In:

Frey AH, editor. On the Nature of Electromagnetic Field Interactions

with Biological Systems. Austin: RG Landes; 1994. p. 195-206.

Finnie JW, Blumbergs PC, Manavis J, Utteridge TD, Gebski V,

Davies RA, et al. Effect of long‑term mobile communication

microwave exposure on vascular permeability in mouse brain.

Pathology 2004;36:96‑7.

Finnie JW, Blumbergs PC, Cai Z, Manavis J, Kuchel TR. Effect of

mobile telephony on blood‑brain barrier permeability in the fetal

mouse brain. Pathology 2006;38:63‑5.

Irmak MK, Fadillioglu E, Gulec M, Erdogan H, Yagmurca M,

Akyol O. Effects of electromagnetic radiation from a cellular

telephone on the oxidant and antioxidant levels in rats. Cell

Biochem Funct 2002;20:279‑83.

Tamasidze AG, Nikolaishvili MI. Effect of high‑frequency EMF

on public health and its neuro‑chemical investigations. Georgian

Med News 2007:58‑60.

Salford LG, Brun AE, Eberhardt JL, Malmgren L, Persson BR. Nerve

cell damage in mammalian brain after exposure to microwaves

from GSM mobile phones. Environ Health Perspect 2003;111:881‑3.

Lai H, Sigh NP. Single‑ and double‑strand DNA breaks in rat

brain cells after acute exposure to low‑level radiofrequency

electromagnetic radiation. Int J Radiat Biol 1996;69:513‑21.

The Controller of the publication. The Ayurvedic Formulary of

India. 2nd ed. New Delhi: Indian Government publication; 2000.

Manthri S, Kota CS, Talluri M. Pharmacognostic, phytochemical

and pharmacological Review of Dendrophthoe falcata. J Phytol


Nadkarni KM. Indian materia medica. Vol 1. Popular Prakashan;

p. 750, 1276, 1277.

Pattanayak SP, Sunita P, Muzumder PM. Dendrophthoe falcata (L.f.)

Ettingsh: A consensus review. Pharmacogn Rev 2008;2:359‑68.

The Wealth of India, Raw Materials. New Delhi, CSIR, NISCOM


Pattanayak SP, Mitra Mazumder P. Assessment of neurobehavioral

toxicity of Dendrophthoe falcata (L.f.) Ettingsh in rat by functional

observational battery after subacute exposure. Pharmacogn Mag


Allekutty NA, Sriniwasan KK, Gundu RP, Udupa AC,

Keshawamurthy KR. Diuretic and Antilithiatic activity of

Dendrophthoe falcata. Fitotherapia 1993;64:325‑31.

Mary KT, Kuttan R, Kuttan G. Cytotoxicity and Immunomodulatory

activity of Loranthes extract. Amala Res Bull 1993;13:53‑8.

Wong DZ, Kadir HA. Antioxidative and neuroprotective effects

of Loranthus parasiticus (L.) Merr (Loranthaceae) against oxidative

stress in NG108‑15 cells. J Med Plants Res 2011; 5:6291‑8.

Narayanan SN, Kumar RS, Potu BK, Nayak S, Bhat PG, Mailankot M.

Effect of radio‑frequency electromagnetic radiations (RF‑EMR) on

passive avoidance behaviour and hippocampal morphology in

Wistar rats. Ups J Med Sci 2010;115:91‑6.

Vogel WH, Scholkens BA, Sandow J, Muller G, Vogel WF. Drug

discovery and evaluation pharmacological assays. 2nd ed. Berlin:

Springer Verlag; 2002. p. 561.

Vogel WH, Scholkens BA, Sandow J, Muller G, Vogel WF. Drug

discovery and evaluation pharmacological assays, 2nd ed. Berlin:

Springer Verlag; 2002. p. 559.

Kulkarni SK. Hand Book of Experimental Pharmacology, 3rd ed.

Delhi: Vallabh Prakashan Delhi; 2003. p. 117‑9.

Khaki A, Ghaffari NM, Khaki AA, Fathiazad F, Khabiri M,

Hossinchi J. Ultra structural study of gentamicin and ofloxacin

effect on testis tissue in rats: Light and transmission electron

microscopy. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol 2009;3:105‑9.

Khaki A, Heidari M, Ghaffari Novin M, Khaki AA. Adverse effects

of ciprofloxacin on testis apoptosis and sperm parameters in rats.

Iran J Reprod Med 2008;6:14‑20.

Lollinger J. Free radicals and food additives. London: Taylor and

Francis; 1981. p. 21.

Shahidi F, Wanasundara PD. Phenolic antioxidants. Crit Rev Food

Sci Nutr 1992;32:67‑103.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v7i4.343


  • There are currently no refbacks.