Processing pharmaceutical grade microcrystalline cellulose from groundnut husk: Extraction methods and characterization

Frank O. Ohwoavworhua, Tiwalade A. Adelakun, Augustine O. Okhamafe

Abstract


Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) is an important ingredient in pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic and other industries. In this work, MCC was prepared from the alpha cellulose content of groundnut husk, a renewable natural resource that has no industrial utilization yet. The effects of pulping methods (sodium hydroxide and multistage pulping) and varying bleaching time on yield and amorphous properties of obtained alpha cellulose were examined. The prepared MCC (groundnut husk-MCC) was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffractometer (X-RPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and compared with commercial-grade MCC. The results showed that complete pulping was achieved only by the use of the
multistage pulping method and its yield was 15%. It was also found that the duration of bleaching affected the polymeric form of the processed alpha cellulose and hence, it is suggested that X-ray diffraction analysis should form an in-process check in the production of cellulose to ensure batch-to-batch consistency and performance. It was concluded that GH-MCC compared favourably with the commercial-grade MCC as well as conform to official specifications for MCC in the British Pharmacopoeia.
Key words: Extraction and characterization, groundnut husk, microcrystalline cellulose

Full Text:

PDF

References


Shangraw RF. Advantages and disadvantages of wet granulation

and direct compression processes for making tablets. Modern

Granulation, Tableting and Capsule Technology, Centre for

Professional Advancement. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: 1984.

Bolhuis GK, Chowhan ZT. Materials for direct compaction.

In: Alderborn G, Nystrom C, editors. Pharmaceutical Powder

Compaction Technology. New York: Merkcel Dekker Inc; 1996.

p. 419-500.

Landin M, Martinez-Pacheco R, Gomez-Amoza JL, Souto C,

Concheiro A, Rowe RC. Effect of batch variation and source of

pulp on the properties of microcrystalline cellulose. Int J Pharm

;91:133-41.

Evans WC. Trease and Evans’ Pharmacognosy. 13th ed. Bailliere

Tindall; 1989. p. 339-77.

Cobley LS, Steele WM. An Intoduction to the Botany of Tropical

Crop. 2nd ed. India: Macmillan Publishers; 1975. p. 80-5.

Ohwoavworhua FO, Kunle OO, Ofoefule SI. Extraction and

characterization of microcrystalline cellulose derived from Luffa

cylindrica plant. African J Pharm Res Dev 2004;1:1-6.

Okhamafe AO, Azubuike CP. Direct compression studies on low

cost celluloses derived from maize cob. J Pharm Sci Pharmacy

Pract 1994;1:26-9.

Sidiras DK, Koullas DP, Vgenopoulos AG, Koukios EG.

Cellulose crystallinity as affected by various technical processes.

Cellulose Chemistry and Tech 1990;24:309-17.

Ansel CH, Popovich GN, Allen VL. Ansel’s Pharmaceutical Dosage

Forms and Drug Delivery Systems. New York: Lippincott Williams

and Wilkins; 2005. p. 189.

Train D. Some aspects of the property of angle of repose of

powders. J Pharm Pharmacol 1958;10:127-35T.

Kornblum SS, Stoopak SB. A new tablet disintegrant agent:

Crosslinked Polyvinylpyrollidone. J Pharm Sci 1973; 62 Suppl

:43-9.

Audu-Peter JD, Ojile JE, Bhatia PG. Physicochemical and powder

properties of alpha- and microcrystalline-cellulose derived from

maize cobs. J Pharm Biores 2004;1:41-5.

Ellefsen O, Tonnesen BA. In: Bikales NM, Segal L, editors. Cellulose

and Cellulose Derivatives, (High Polymers, Vol. 5, Part IV),

New York: Interscience; 1971. p. 151.

Tripp VW, Conrad CM. In: Robert T. O’Connor, editor. Instrumental

Analysis of Cotton Cellulose and Modified Cotton Cellulose.

New York: Marcel Dekker; 1972. p. 339.

Sjostrom E. Wood Chemistry, Fundamental Applications. 2nd ed.

New York: Academic Press; 1993. p. 171.

Atalla RH, Dimick BE, Nagel, SC. Studies in polymorphy

in cellulose. In: Arthur JC, editor. Cellulose Chemistry and

Technology. Washington, D.C: ACS; 1977. p. 30-41.

Saleki-Gerhardt A, Ahlneck C, Zografi G. Assessment of disorder

in crystalline solids. Int J Pharm 1994;101:237-47.

Grobe A. Properties of cellulose materials. In: Brandrup J,

Immergut EH, editors. Polymer Handbook. New York: Wiley;

p. V117-70, V144-9.

Krassig HA. Cellulose Structure, Accessibility, and Reactivity.

Gordon and Breach Science; 1996.

Nelson ML, O’Connor RT. Relation of certain infrared bands

to cellulose crystallinity and crystal lattice type, Part II. A new

infrared ratio for estimation of crystallinity in cellulose I and II.

J App Polymer Sci 1964;8:1325-41.

Rowe RC, McKillop AG, Bray D. The effect of batch and source

variation on the crystallinity of microcrystalline cellulose. Int

J Pharm 1994;101:169-72.

Barber TA. Pharmaceutical Particulate Matter. Analysis and

Control. Buffalo Grove (IL): Interpharm Press; 1993. p. 266-349.

Staniforth JN. Powder flow. In: Aulton ME, editor. Pharmaceutics

–The Science of Dosage form Design. Churchill Livingston; 1996.

p. 600-15.

Well JI, Aulton ME. Preformulation. In: Aulton ME, editor.

Pharmaceutics –The Science of Dosage form Design. Churchill

Livingston; 1996. p. 223-53.

Caramella C. Novel methods for disintegrant characterisation,

part 1. Pharm Technol 1991;48-56.

Stamm AF. Wood and Cellulose Science. New York: The Ronald

Press Company; 1964. p. 132-65.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v3i2.64

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.