Isolation, identification and purification of caffeine from Coffea arabica L. and Camellia sinensis L.: A combination antibacterial study

Muthanna J. Mohammed, Firas A. Al-Bayati

Abstract


The present study was conducted to isolate the most important bioactive compound from Coffea arabica (coffee) beans and Camellia sinensis (green tea) leaves. Caffeine (3,7-dihydro-1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-dione) was isolated from both plants using a liquid–liquid extraction method, detected on thin layer chromatography (TLC) plates in comparison with standard caffeine, which served as a positive control. Moreover, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer and High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses were used to confirm the purity and characterization of the extracted caffeine. The isolated material(s) from both plants were investigated for their single and combined antibacterial activities against six selected pathogenic bacteria. The Grampositive bacteria were; Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Gram-negative bacteria included; Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis,
Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both compounds at a concentration of 2 mg/ml showed similar antibacterial activities against all tested bacteria, except for P. mirabilis, and the highest inhibitory effect was observed against P. aeruginosa using a modified agar diffusion method. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of caffeine was determined using a broth microdilution method in 96 multi-well microtitre plates. MIC values ranged from 62.5 to 250.0 μg/ml for the caffeine isolated from coffee and 62.5
to 500.0 μg/ml for green tea caffeine. Combination results showed additive effects against most pathogenic bacteria especially for P. aeruginosa, using both antibacterial assays.
Key words: Antibacterial activity, Coffea arabica, camellia sinensis, Caffeine

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v3i1.56

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