Anticancer potential of nutraceutical formulation through antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative mechanisms in N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mammary cancer

Gummalla Pitchaiah


Background: Previous investigation has shown the promising anticancer potential of nutraceutical formulations prepared using fine powders of amla, apple, garlic, onion, papaya, turmeric, wheatgrass, and cow urine distillate in N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced mammary cancer. Combination of nutraceuticals is known to act by multiple mechanisms in the prevention of cancer. Aim: An evaluation was performed to study the possible mechanisms involved in the anticancer potential of self-fortified nutraceutical formulation (SFNF) in MNU-induced mammary cancer in Sprague Dawley rats. Materials and Methods: Mammary cancer was induced using MNU in female Sprague Dawley rats. At the end of experimental period, mammary tissues were analyzed for malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels. Similarly, serum samples were analyzed for Estradiol (E2) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels. Immunohistochemical analysis of Ki-67 antigen was performed in mammary tissues. Results: Findings from this study showed that the tissue MDA levels were decreased; SOD and CAT levels were increased in SFNF supplemented rats. SFNF supplemented rats also showed decrease in MPO and TNF-α level compared to MNU control rats. SFNF supplemented rats showed significant reduction in serum E2 (P < 0.01) and IGF-1 (P < 0.001) levels. Significant reduction in Ki-67 (P < 0.01) immunoreactive cells of tumors of SFNF supplemented rats was also observed. Conclusion: SFNF was effective in the prevention of MNU-induced mammary cancer through antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative mechanisms in rats.

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