Thyroid diseases: Pathophysiology and new hopes in treatment with medicinal plants and natural antioxidants

Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei


The thyroid gland regulates a wide range of physiological activities such as growth, metabolism, homeostasis, and cell proliferation and differentiation through the secretion of thyroid hormones (THs). Thyroid diseases are among the most common endocrine disorders, hypothyroidism is the most common clinical thyroid dysfunction. Hyperthyroidism means increased thyroid function and refers to excess metabolic state due to excessive synthesis and secretion of TH. Medicinal plants have been identified and used by humans throughout history. To name the herbs and natural antioxidants used to treat thyroid disorders including hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. Related articles were obtained using the Google Scholar, PubMed, and ScienceDirect databases. The results of this study indicate that medicinal plants include Fucus vesiculosus, Aegle marmelos, Coleus forskohlii, Linum usitatissimum, Withania somnifera, Commiphora mukul, Nigella sativa, and Bacopa monnieri. They can improve the hyperthyroidism in improving hyperthyroidism and herbal remedies, Melissa officinalis A. marmelos, Lycopus europaeus, Leonurus cardiaca, and Aloe barbadensis be effective. Herbal drugs cause comparatively fewer side effects. It is believed that the drugs derived from the plants are very safe and produce significant effects in the treatment of various diseases. Today, traditional medicine is being widely used and plants are still considered a major source of natural antioxidants that can serve as a clue for the development of new drugs.

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