Inhibitory activity of leaf extract of Tinospora cordifolia and magnoflorine on aldose reductase for control of diabetes

Prathibha Devi Cherku


Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that affects a large population around the world, as declared by the World Health Organization. There is a need for discovery of natural, non-toxic agents with minimum side effects such as medicinal plants. Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi) has been used as an antidiabetic medicine in Ayurveda and traditional folk medicine. The present study is an integrative approach of plant sciences, medicinal chemistry, and screening assays for the development of treatment for diabetes. It investigates the analysis and antidiabetic efficiency of the leaf extract of T. cordifolia and its alkaloidal component magnoflorine. Materials and Methods: Initially, the active fraction of T. cordifolia (AFTC) of methanolic leaf extract was analyzed through fractionation to isolate the active molecules through the column and thin-layer chromatography. The primary compounds were characterized through high-performance liquid chromatography and their chromatographic profiles established using appropriate standards. Subsequently, the plant extract of T. cordifolia and one of its alkaloidal components, magnoflorine was tested on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats for their antidiabetic property by assessing the inhibition of aldose reductase. Results: Four active molecules (alkaloids) were isolated from the plant extract of T. cordifolia through Column chromatography and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography studies confirmed their identity as magnoflorine, jatrorrhizine, palmatine, and berberine. Antidiabetic potential of plant extract and its component alkaloid, magnoflorine was tested on STZ-induced diabetic rats. Treatment with plant extract or magnoflorine decreased the serum glucose to normal level similar to that of the standard drug metformin and also remarkably prevented their weight loss to almost the same extent as those treated with metformin. Significant inhibition of aldose reductase activity was also observed by the plant extract or magnoflorine. Discussion: The study indicated that the extract of T. cordifolia and magnoflorine help in the maintenance of body weights and blood glucose levels of STZ-induced diabetic rats and also demonstrated a significant aldose reductase inhibition activity similar to that of Metformin (the standard antidiabetic drug). Hence, the plant extract and magnoflorine have immense antidiabetic potential. Conclusion: The plant extract and magnoflorine have an immense antidiabetic property, and magnoflorine can be developed into a potent antidiabetic drug after further trials. The pure form of magnoflorine is scarcely available, and the development of a purification process may be beneficial.

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