Pharmacognostical, physicochemical, and phytochemical evaluation of Samarakhadyam (Byttneria herbacea Roxb.) whole plant – An extra pharmacopoeial drug of Ayurveda

Tarun Sharma


Introduction: Byttneria herbacea Roxb., family Sterculiaceae, is a small herb found in several parts of India. The plant as a whole is reported for traditional use in the management of dysentery, cuts, wounds, syphilis, cholera, diarrhea, leukorrhea, fracture of limbs, ulcers, and sprains, etc., in either powder or decoction form. Although used traditionally, whole plant powder has not been evaluated scientifically for its pharmacognostical and phytochemical characters till date. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate pharmacognostic, preliminary physicochemical, and phytochemical profiles including high-performance thin-layer chromatography of B. herbacea whole plant powder. Materials and Methods: B. herbacea was collected from Gandhamardan hill ranges of Odisha; shade dried and powdered through the mechanical grinder. Its powder microscopy, preliminary physicochemical, and phytochemical tests were investigated following standard recommended procedures of Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Methanolic extract of the whole plant powder was determined for chromatographical evaluations. Results: Powder microscopy of the whole plant showed the presence of identifying characters such as ample amount of simple and compound starch grains, diacytic stomata, simple and stellate trichomes, annular vessels, fragments of spiral vessels, rhomboidal crystals, and brown content (tannin). Water-soluble extractive value (13.136%) was more than methanol soluble extractive value (5.652%), and pH was 6.5. The preliminary phytochemical study disclosed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, flavonoids, and other phenolic compounds. Chromatography study showed eight spots at 254 nm and seven spots at 366 nm. Conclusion: The findings of the study are going to be helpful in the identification and standardization of B. herbacea whole plant

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