Ambiguity in the authenticity of selected “Vidanga” market samples with respect to their biochemical and chromatographic evaluation

Dr. Suresh Jagtap


Objective: There are various factors responsible for variations in the traded herbal composition on the basis of species variation, fruit immaturity, climatic conditions, substitutability, and uncertain trade practices. There is timely need to resolve this ambiguity. The present study designed to resolve the variation in traded fruits of “Vidanga.” Materials and Methods: “Vidanga” fruits were collected from markets of different locations in India. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate, anti-lipid peroxidation (ALP), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) using two different solvents, namely, ethanol and ethyl acetate. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were studied by standard methods, namely, Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride respectively. Phytoconstituents investigation was also observed and chemical constituents were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Results and Discussion: Ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of “Vidanga” market samples exhibited highest total phenolic content in Pune sample (0.860 ± 0.003 mg/g gallic acid equivalent [GAE] equivalent) and in Nagpur (0.179 ± 0.015 mg/g quercetin equivalent), respectively. All the samples showed 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) scavenging activity in the order, highest activity in samples of Delhi followed by Nagpur, Mumbai, Bengaluru, and Pune. The ethyl acetate extract obtained from Nagpur sample had the strongest free radical-scavenging activity with IC50 value of 89.54 μg/mL ± 0.001. ALP shows the order as lowest in Bengaluru sample and with slight increasing order followed by Nagpur, Delhi, Pune, and Mumbai samples which shows the high activity. Ethyl acetate extract of Pune sample showed the highest (40.47 ± 0.004 µg/mL) IC50. FRAP activity showed maximum inhibition in ethyl acetate extract of the Pune sample (67.76%) while the lowest activity showed in Delhi sample (33.64%). FRAP showed the lowest activity in Pune followed by Nagpur, Mumbai, Delhi, and high activity in Bengaluru sample. Phytochemical investigation shows the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrate, tannins, proteins, amino acids, fixed oils, gum and mucilage, glycosides, terpenoids, and steroids. LC-MS revealed phytoconstituent variations among all the samples. Conclusion: By evaluating commercial “Vidanga” samples from major markets, namely, Bengaluru, Delhi, Mumbai, Nagpur, and Pune, it is concluded that significant variation exists in the traded samples regarding their morphology, identity and medicinal attributes as studied from a string of biochemical assays as well as mass spectrum. Hence, the study suggests awareness in all scientific community, traders, practitioners, manufacturing units, pharmacies, etc., for an urgent need for the selection of authentic raw materials.

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