Phytochemical investigation and pharmacognostic standardization of Cissampelos pareira stem

Jhuma Samanta, Snehendu Bhattacharya, Abtar Chand Rana


Background: Cissampelos Linn (family -Manispermaceae) is perennial climbing herbs with small greenish-yellow flower. It belongs to the genus Cissampelos, of which thirty to forty species are distributed in the tropical and subtropical world. One species occur in India. In the market three plants Cissampelos pareira, Cyclea peltata and Stephania japonica (Fam. Menispermaceae) are being used as source of Patha. Aim: Therefore, an establishment of pharmacognostical standards on identification, purity, quality and classification
of the herbal plant is required. Materials and Methods: Microscopic characteristics were observed under a light microscope. Physicochemical properties - including loss on drying, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, and water alcohol and ether extractive values- were determined. Phytochemical screening for major groups of compounds was performed, and a thin-layer chromatography of methanolic extract of the air dried powdered stem of this plant was performed. Results: The microscopic characteristics showed the wavy epidermis with unicellular trichomes. Lignified xylem vessels, biseriate radial medullary rays had also been found. Phytochemical
screening revealed that Cissampelos pareira stem extract contains flavonoids, terpenoid, alkaloid, tannins, amino acid protein and carbohydrate. Alkaloids were detected in TLC of Cissampelos pareira stem extract developed using blends of methanol: concentrated ammonia (200:3) and n-Butanol:Acetone:Water (3:1:1). Flavonoids and essential oil were detected in TLC of Cissampelos pareira flower extract developed using blends of n-Butanol:Acetone:Water (4:1:5) and Benzene: Ethyl acetate: Formic acid (9:7:4) as solvent
systems for flavonid where as chloroform(100%), Benzene(100%), Chloroform:Benzene (1:1) and Ether:Benzene (1:1) as solvent systems for essential oil. Conclusion: These findings will be useful towards establishing pharmacognostic standards on identification, purity, quality and classification of the plant-drug research.
Key words: Cissampelos pareira stem, phytochemical investigation, pharmacognostic standardization

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