Comparative studies on several Vidanga plants collected from Maharashtra, India, employing phytochemical screening, high-performance thin-layer chromatography analysis, and anti-oxidant potential

Suresh Jagtap


Introduction: Vidanga is a well-known herbal treatment that has been used to treat a range of ailments for ages. According to modern literature, Vidanga is most commonly used to treat inflammation especially gut inflammation, namely colitis. Embelin is the major bioactive compound present in Vidanga (Embelia spp.) responsible for its therapeutic property. According to Ayurveda, Embelia ribes is the indicated botanical as a “Vidanga” but under the name, “Vidanga” four plants are marketed, namely, Embelia drupacea (Dennst.) M. R. Almeida and S. M. Almeida, E. ribes Burm. f. and Maesa indica (Mi) (Roxb.) A. DC., Embelia tsjeriam-cottam (Etj) (Roem. and Schult.) A. DC and Mi (Roxb.) A. DC. Hence, it is necessary to identify a therapeutically more effective plant as Vidanga. Materials and Methods: We have evaluated more effective species using phytochemical screening; high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) characterization; and free radical scavenging potential using bovine serum albumin (BSA) anti-denaturation assay, nitric oxide scavenging (NOS) activity, and 2,2’-Azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) assay. Results: Preliminary phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of quinone, carbohydrates, fixed oils, glycosides, terpenoids, steroids, and tannins in collected Vidanga samples. HPTLC studies revealed that Embelin levels were highest in Etj (1.06 ng/μl), followed by E. ribes (Er) (0.92 ng/μl), E. drupacea (Ed) (0.5 ng/μl), and absent in Maesa indica (Mi). Er exhibited better anti-denaturation activity than Etj, Ed, and Mi. Etj and Er showed a superior ABTS scavenging activity than Ed and Mi. NOS antioxidant activity was also shown to be higher in Er and Etj than in Ed and Mi. Discussion and Conclusion: Phytochemicals have been found in all plant species, although, HPTLC screening revealed that Er and Etj have similar quantities of Embelin. The antioxidant properties were strongly linked to the Embelin content, indicating that Er and Etj might be a viable substitution for one another.

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