Pharmacognostical studies of stem bark of Careya arborea Roxb

Kamal Kumar Goyal, B. N. Satish Kumar, K. Mruthunjaya, Mythreyi Mythreyi, S. N. Yoganarasimhan


Careya arborea Roxb (Lecythidaceae) is known as Kumbhi in Ayurveda and is an important medicinal plant. It has a large panel of indication and would be more suitable to evaluate the bark since it has been used in Ayurveda in treatment of tumours, cough, bronchitis, haemorrhoids, intestinal worms, dysentery, ulcers and eruptive fevers, particularly small pox to name a few. The present study provided taxonomic characters of the plant, pharmacognostical and physicochemical details of the stem bark which will help in laying down pharmacopoeial parameters. Many important diagnostic characters such as lenticular openings at certain places of bark; presence of tanniferous cells in cork, secondary cortex and secondary phloem; layers of stone cells in secondary cortex and secondary phloem; presence of fibroid sclereids; rhomboidal, prismatic type of crystals in secondary phloem and presence of starch grains in medullary rays
will certainly help in the identification of the drug. The preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of carbohydrates and glycosides, phenolic compound and tannins in ethanol and aqueous extracts, saponin glycosides in aqueous extract and phytosterols are present in petroleum ether, benzene, acetone and ethanol extracts. Fixed oil and fats are found in petroleum ether and benzene. Flavonoids, gums and mucilage, proteins and amino acids were totally absent in all extracts. HPTLC profile established for the plant will help in identification of the drug and also in isolating and identifying the biomarker compound responsible for the bioactivity.
Key words: Careya arborea, HPTLC, Kumbhi, Pharmacognostical, physicochemical

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